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CFR “Cost and Freight" means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, transfer from the seller to the buyer. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose the CPT term is more appropriate to use.

CIF “Cost, Insurance and Freight” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, transfer from the seller to the buyer. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. Subject to CIF conditions, the seller is also obliged to acquire marine insurance in favor of the buyer against goods loss or damage during transportation. This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose the CPT term is more appropriate to use.

CPT “Carriage Paid To” means that the seller supplies the goods to the carrier. Besides that, the seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss or damage to the goods during transportation transfers to the buyer when the goods are turned over to the carrier. In case of shipment being transported to the named port of destination by several carriers, the risk transfer happens at the moment of goods transfer to the first of them. The seller is required to clear the goods for export. This term may be used for any mode of transportation.

CIP “Carriage and Insurance Paid to” means that the seller supplies the goods to the carrier. Besides that, the seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss or damage to the goods during transportation transfers to the buyer when the goods are turned over to the carrier. In case of shipment being transported to the named port of destination by several carriers, the risk transfer happens at the moment of goods transfer to the first of them. The seller is also obliged to acquire marine insurance in favor of the buyer against goods loss or damage during transportation as well as to clear the goods for export. This term may be used for any mode of transportation.

EXW “Ex Works” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available at his premises (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, he is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer or for clearing the goods for export. This term assigns minimum obligations to the seller, and the buyer bears all the expenses and risks related to goods delivery from the seller’s premises to point of destination. This term cannot be applied when the buyer cannot carry out directly or indirectly the export formalities. In such circumstances, the FCA term should be used, provided that the seller agrees to bear expenses and risks related to the shipment of goods.

FCA “Free Carrier” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. The choice of delivery location affects the seller’s obligations regarding loading and off-loading of goods at the location chosen. If the delivery is done from the seller’s premises the seller is responsible for the shipment of the goods. If the goods are delivered to a different location the seller bears no responsibility for such shipment. This term may be used for any mode of transportation. If the buyer entrusts another person who is not a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are in the custody of that person.

FAS “Free Alongside Ship” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. This term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. The FAS term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport.

FOB “Free On Board” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose the FCA term is more appropriate to use.

DAF “Delivered At Frontier” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the non-off-loaded goods have been made available on board a transportation vehicle at the border, cleared for exportation but not for import yet, and before entering the customs territory of the adjacent state. The term is primarily intended to be used when goods are to be carried by rail or road, but it may be used for any mode of transport. If delivery takes place in a port, on board a vessel or at a wharf, DES or DEQ terms should be used.

DES “Delivered Ex Ship” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship at the named port of destination and not cleared for import. The seller has to bear all costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination up to the moment of their off-loading. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport or for multi-modal deliveries when the goods arrive to port of destination on board a vessel.

DEQ “Delivered Ex Quay” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, not cleared for import. The seller has to bear all risks and costs to transportation and off-loading the goods to the wharf at the port of destination. Besides that the seller must clear the goods for import and pay all importation – related duties, taxes and other charges. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport or for multi-modal deliveries when the goods are off-loaded from the vessel to a wharf at the port of destination. However, if the parties wish to oblige the seller to bear the risks and costs related to delivery of the goods to a different location (warehouse, cargo terminal, etc.) at the port or beyond its boundaries, the terms DDU and DDP should be used.

DDU “Delivered Duty Unpaid” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods, not cleared for import and not unloaded from the arrived vessel, have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto except for duties, taxes and other official charges payable upon importation. Those expenses are to be borne by the buyer, who also bears other expenses and risks related to his inability to perform importation customs clearance in due time. This term may be used for any mode of transportation; however when delivery takes place on board a vessel or at a wharf, DES or DEQ terms should be used.

DDP “Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods, cleared for import but not unloaded from the arrived vessel have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear all risks and costs related to the goods transportation including, if required, the duties, taxes and other charges for importation to the country of destination (meaning customs clearance related liabilities and risks as well as payment for customs formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges). This term may be used for any mode of transportation; however when delivery takes place on board a vessel or at a wharf, DES or DEQ terms should be used.

GLOSSARY

EXCISE (Lat. accidere - to cut off; Fr. accise) - one of the types of indirect tax on goods or services, included into the tariff cost. Selective E. covers a certain group of goods and services of mass demand as well as luxury goods. E. in its general meaning is universal E. corresponds with sales tax and value-added tax.

DUTY-FREE IMPORTATION  - imports in bond. Importation of goods, values and other items to the territory of a certain country without payment of any custom duties, taxes and charges.

VETERINARY AND SANITARY CERTIFICATES - documents certifying the non-infected status of goods and vehicles imported into a certain country. Demanded by appropriate quarantine and customs authorities in order to prevent the transfer of infection and contamination into the country of import by carrying agents like animals, birds, raw materials of animal origin , fresh fruit, etc.; issued by veterinary or sanitary control authorities of the country the goods are being shipped from.

TEMPORARY STORAGE - 1). A mandatory condition of the customs clearance procedure. From the moment the goods and vehicles are submitted to the Russian Federation customs authority and up to the moment they are released or passed over to the recipient under a different customs schedule mode, all these goods and vehicles have a T.S. status and are under customs authorities control, having obtained this status automatically upon being submitted to a customs authority. At importation such submission is expressed by notification of the customs authorities by the carrier or other person authorized by the carrier that the goods and vehicles have arrived to the Russian Federation customs territory or to the point of their destination. At exportation such submission is expressed by notification of the customs authorities by the carrier, the carrier’s agent or other person authorized by those parties that the goods and vehicles have arrived at their destination point (customs processing location). T.S. is done on specially allocated and equipped premises, open sites and other places – temporary storage warehouses. 2) A phase (processing stage) of the customs clearance process from the moment the goods and vehicles are submitted to the Russian Federation customs authorities and up to the moment they are released or passed over to the recipient under a different customs schedule mode. The T.S. term is determined by the customs authority and is based on the time needed to submit the customs declaration, the type of product being cleared and the transportation means being used. The T.S. term is the term of customs clearance. Failure to take appropriate steps for shipment release or passing over to the recipient under a different customs schedule mode, when the term of shipment storage at the temporary storage warehouse exceeds the scheduled term, results in confiscation of the shipment.

TEMPORARY IMPORTATION (EXPORTATION) - a customs schedule mode allowing the use of goods within the customs territory of the Russian Federation or beyond its limits with complete or partial release from payment of customs duties, taxes and without implementation of economic policy measures. Permission for T.I. (E.) of goods is granted by customs authorities of the Russian Federation in situations when the goods can be reliably identified and following a procedure determined by the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation.

AIR WAY BILL - a transportation document certifying that a contract for freight transportation by air was entered into along with the conditions of such air transportation, as well as acceptance of the freight by the carrier from the sender.

CUSTOMS FREIGHT DECLARATION - a unified document for customs purposes, issued for every consignment of goods, transferred through the customs border of the Russian Federation by foreign trade operations participants irrespective of their residency, legal status, location and customs privileges entitlement. The C.F.D. states the type of foreign trade operation, the parties’ requisite information, the sender and the receiver of the goods, currency of payment, general actual cost, and other requisite information fully revealing the essence of the goods and the related currency revenue. It serves the purpose of customs taxation, has monitoring function and is subject to statistical processing. Coinciding with the Unified Administrative Document (UAD) in form, the C.F.D. is not legally accepted outside the Russian Federation due to divergence in qualifiers applied.

CUSTOMS APPLICANT - a person transferring goods across a customs border and a customs broker (intermediary), who state (declare), present and submit goods and vehicles for customs clearance on their behalf. In the Russian Federation the C.A. can be only a Russian citizen, except for cases when individuals transfer goods across the Russian Federation border for non-commercial purposes and in other cases determined by the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation.

DEMURRAGE FEE - previously agreed upon additional payment for idle time to the vessel owner from the freight owner (charterer).

DETENTION - down-time of a vessel on top of the demurrage period; unlike with demurrage fees, losses from idle time in case of detention are covered not partially, but in full.

INSPECTION OF GOODS AND VEHICLES - an element of customs supervision to which all goods and vehicles transferred across the customs border of a given country are subject, except for specially stipulated cases; may be carried out by means which are not damaging to goods and vehicles inspected.

IMPORT - importation into the country of goods, technologies, services (paid-for use of services provided by foreign firms), capital (in the form of credits and loans granted) of foreign origin directly from the producer country or from an intermediary country for their realization in the home market, as well as for transit to third-party countries. I. is differentiated as tangible (importation of material assets) and intangible (transportation costs of importing cargo, passengers, tourism, insurance, services, as well as money transfers by legal entities and individuals abroad). I. is regulated by national legislation, political and legal limitations, customs tariff, licensing system and by other non- tariff measures of foreign economic management.

DUTY ON IMPORT - a customs duty levied from goods and vehicles imported into a certain country. Used for State income replenishment, protection of home market against foreign goods penetration, and also to create advantages for certain states, executing fiscal, protectionist and preferential functions accordingly. The D.O.I. rate, as a rule, increases in relation to the degree of goods processing level (lower for raw materials, higher for complete product).

INCOTERMS - a collection of international trading terms generalizing the experience of world commercial practice and published by the International Trade Board; current effective edition - 2010

QUARANTINE SUPERVISION (it. guaranta giomi) - a complex of security sanitary measures aimed at prevention (non-admission) of spreading (entering from abroad) infectious diseases, agricultural diseases and pests. Q.S. is implemented for freights of vegetative and animal origin, containers and packaging as well as for vehicles. Relevant imported cargoes must have quarantine (veterinary) certificates from appropriate exportation country organizations. See also Veterinary and Sanitary Certificates.

QUOTING  - quantitative limitations on production, exportation and importation of goods (by physical volume or by cost), introduced by interstate and national state authorities for the purpose of international trade adjustment, as well as for domestic trade and payments balancing; is a traditional measure of non-tariff management being executed in compliance with determined import and export quota licenses, copies of which are enclosed with customs declarations along with other documents required for customs purposes.

BILL OF LADING - type of security (commodity paper); a receipt from the transportation company (vessel or airplane) agent to the consignor confirming acceptance of freight for transportation and the obligation to release the freight at destination to its bearer. The BOL contains information on the vehicle name, the carrier, the sender, the recipient, the receipt of goods or loading location, freight destination, goods description, freight details, etc. payments due to carrier, time and a place of BOL issue, number of copies issued. BOL transfer is executed in accordance with rules of securities transfer (nominal, order BOL or BOL to bearer) and its transfer is equivalent to the transfer of freight. The BOL is one of the main documents required for customs control of freights transported by sea.

THROUGH BILL OF LADING - a Bill of Lading issued in cases when cargo is being delivered to its destination not by a certain vessel directly, but by means of transshipment to another vessel or another means of transportation (motor transport, railroad); it is executed under the arrangement between different carriers for joint transportation of goods, or by one carrier who maintains several crossing each other lines; it is typical for container transportation.

CONTAINER - 1). transportation equipment (cage, removable tank or other similar adjustment), which is a fully or partially enclosed reservoir of not less than 1 м3 in volume, intended for holding goods; has constant character and, because of that, is sufficiently strong to serve for multiple usage; it is easy to load, off-load and to transfer; facilitates transportation of goods by one or several modes of transportation without the need of interim re-stuffing; 2) any equipment serving for freight unification, for example: all types of C. and/or railroad carriages utilizing international or other standards platforms, trailers, exchange tare, roll-on / roll-off equipment etc., and relating to any type of transportation.

DEMURRAGE - vessel down-time in a port in addition to down-time caused by the sea transportation contract requirements related to waiting for cargo being loaded or off-loaded, or due to freight processing activities. D. it is covered at a special demurrage fee rate.

LINER-MISS - a condition of delivery when a vessel bears expenses when discharging cargo in port of destination.

INVOICE (Rus. Товарно-транспортная накладная) - a shipping contract for freight transportation by motor transport. For international delivery contracts is issued in four copies. The first one remains with the consignor, the second one goes with the freight, the third and the fourth ones remain with the carrier.

OVERSIZE CARGO - freight, whether packed (tared), or not, with length, width or height exceeding the corresponding regular dimensions of items allowed for transportation.

LOT - goods or property, forwarded to one recipient under one transportation document (waybill, Bill of Lading, etc.) in compliance with transportation rules, as well as same sent under one mail waybill or transferred as cabin baggage or luggage of one person crossing a country border.

CARRIER - any person, either actually transferring the goods, or having, under a shipping contract, accepted direct (intermediary) obligations to carry out delivery by railway, automobile, sea, air, river transport or by their combination, or responsible for equipment and usage of vehicles, or being in charge of goods transit, etc.

DUTY - tax levied by State authorities for carrying out certain actions, for example notarial, enterprise registration, ownership rights registration, et al.

QUALITY CERTIFICATE - an accompanying document certifying that related product is in compliance with stated quality standards, technical properties, health and environmental safety requirements, as specified by contract terms and conditions; usually issued by the manufacturer or by the exporter.

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN - a document issued by Chambers of Commerce or similar organizations certifying that related imported goods were manufactured at a certain location.

DELIVERY TIME (Rus. – “транзитный период”) - the term within which goods along with related documents accepted for transfer between different customs offices must be delivered to the destination customs office. D.T. is determined by usual delivery time terms based on the capability of transportation type used for the delivery, the scheduled route and other conditions of transportation.

STEVEDORE - a legal entity or an individual performing vessel loading/unloading. S. is hired by either the ship-owner or by the charterer. If the ship-owner pays stevedoring fees their cost is included into the charter rate.

SURVEYOR - inspector or agent for inspection and evaluation of insured property.

TALLYMAN - person conducting tallying of the goods being loaded aboard a vessel or off-loaded from it. Tallying is done at receipt and delivery of goods transported by piece count. Missing cargo - related claims and risks are dealt with on the basis of freight accounting documents.

TALLYMAN’S NOTE - a cargo document certifying freight piece-count and its condition at receipt of goods on board a vessel or at handing goods in at delivery in port of destination.

CUSTOMS PAYMENTS - different kinds of custom duties, taxes, customs fees, and other payments subject to applicable regulations and collected by customs authorities of the Russian Federation.

TRANSPORT TERMINAL - a railway terminal, freight yard, container terminal or site, multi-purpose freight terminal or any similar reception center.

PACKING LIST - a document containing a list of all types and grades of product, located in every packing unit (case, box, container).

FREIGHT - one of payment methods for transferring goods by sea or for using a vessel over a certain period of time.

CHARTERING - an agreement on commissioning a vessel for carrying out a run or a number of runs over a stipulated period of time.

FREE-IN - condition of delivery (transportation) when a vessel is freed from charges for loading goods aboard.

Consultation


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